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Table 8 Hypotheses on the direction of action of explanatory variables and the final results of the farm exit and farm type change models.

From: Structural change in the dairy sector: exit from farming and farm type change

Variable Hypotheses Model results
Exit Change Exit Change
Number of family workers
Age + −/+ +
Herd size (number of dairy cows) 0
Intensity of production (stocking rate) −/+ 0
Organic production +
Animal welfare housing system +
Animal welfare: outdoor keeping   +
Specialisation (Herfindahl–Hirschman index) −/+ −/+ + 0
Direct payments total
Dependency from direct payments (share of DP in farm's standard output) + + +
Milk price 0 +
PDO cheese region with above average milk prices +
Comparison salary + + + +
Unemployment rate ns
Difficulty of farm production + + + +
  1. +: increasing the probability; −: decreasing the probability; 0: economically not significant; ns: statistically not significant