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Table 4 Overview of VC mechanisms and POs in the five value chain cases

From: Alignment between vertical and horizontal coordination for food quality and safety in Indonesian vegetable chains

Items Variables Case A Case B Case C Case D Case E
Spot market Hybrid
Vertical coordination mechanisms Quality arrangements No specific quality arrangements Intrinsic quality arrangements Intrinsic quality arrangements Intrinsic and extrinsic quality arrangements Intrinsic and extrinsic quality arrangements
  Quality monitoring No monitoring Monitoring by buyer Monitoring by buyer Monitoring by buyer and third party Monitoring by buyer and third party
  Resource allocations No resource allocation No resource allocation No resource allocation No resource allocation Buyer provides technical assistance, knowledge and support for organic certification
PO Services No PO involved in the contract No PO involved in the contract PO shares knowledge and provides training PO provides inputs, knowledge, training and support for organic certification No PO involved in the contract
Quality and safety performance Quality No quality standards Food quality Food quality Food quality and safety Food quality and safety