Skip to main content

Table 2 Variables and statistical descriptions

From: Effects of sustainable agricultural practices on farm income and food security in northern Ghana

Variables Description Mean SD
Dependent variables
Farm income Gross margin of farm production in Ghana Cedis (1000 GHS) 2.561 12.378
rCSI Reduced Coping strategy index 5.576 10.516
HDD Household dietary diversity 7.799 2.094
Control variables
Age Age of household head (HH) in years 47.759 14.493
Gender 1 if HH is male and 0 otherwise 0.842 0.365
Education Number of years of education 2.178 4.429
Marital status 1 if HH is married and 0 otherwise 0.893 0.309
Household size Number of people in a household 8.529 5.064
Farm size Hectares of land that household cultivated 3.330 3.522
Off-farm income Income acquired from off-farm work in Ghana Cedis (100 GHS) 1.103 2.266
Africa RISING member 1 if member in AfricaRISING farmer group and 0 otherwise 0.611 0.489
Extension 1 if a farmer receives advice from an extension officer and 0 otherwise 0.609 0.488
Extension satisfaction 1 if household is satisfied with the extension agent and 0 otherwise 0.456 0.498
Number of crops Number of crops cultivated in the cropping season 4.040 1.871
Drought and floods 1 if household experienced drought in the previous season and 0 otherwise 0.621 0.485
Market access 1 if farmer has access to market and 0 otherwise 0.704 0.457
Sandy soil 1 if farmer perceives soil as sandy and 0 otherwise 0.137 0.344
Clay soil 1 if farmer perceives soil as clay and 0 otherwise 0.238 0.426
Flat slope 1 if farmer perceives plots as having a flat slope and 0 otherwise 0.910 0.286
Moderate to steep 1 if farmer perceives plot as having a moderate slope and 0 otherwise 0.077 0.267
Northern 1 if household is in the Northern region and 0 otherwise 0.478 0.500
Upper east 1 if household is in the Upper East region and 0 otherwise 0.173 0.378
Upper west 1 if household is in the Upper West region and 0 otherwise 0.349 0.480
Instrumental variables
Distance to weekly market Minutes 31.277 25.736
Minutes 30 to plot 1 if the distance between plot and homestead is within 30 min and 0 otherwise 0.547 0.498