Skip to main content

Table 3 MNL estimates of SAP adoption

From: Effects of sustainable agricultural practices on farm income and food security in northern Ghana

Variables I0F1S0 I0F0S1 I1F1S0 I0F1S1 I1F1S1
Age 0.004 (0.009) 0.012 (0.010) 0.011 (0.015) 0.010 (0.009) 0.005 (0.011)
Gender 0.174* (0.358) 0.601 (0.361)  − 0.541** (0.507) 0.804*** (0.338) 0.422 (0.456)
Education 0.239 (0.138) 0.127 (0.141) 0.567** (0.210) 0.153 (0.130) 0.200 (0.172)
Marital status  − 0.543 (0.454)  − 1.258*** (0.428)  − 0.722 (0.647)  − 0.661 (0.422)  − 0.705 (0.567)
Household size  − 0.019* (0.334) 0.323 (0.338) 0.227 (0.479) 0.381 (0.309) 0.919** (0.402)
Farm size 0.896 (0.391) 0.365 (0.407) 0.822 (0.505) 0.662 (0.374) 0.786 (0.460)
Off-farm income 0.101 (0.057) 0.053** (0.058) 0.057 (0.089) 0.143* (0.055) 0.240** (0.074)
Africa RISING member 0.816* (0.300) 0.748** (0.308) 0.656 (0.459) 1.443*** (0.284) 1.363 (0.400)
Extension 0.868* (0.289) 0.075*** (0.292) 1.057 (0.462) 0.664 (0.268) 1.237** (0.367)
Extension satisfaction 0.033 (0.299)  − 0.025 (0.299) 0.433 (0.442) 0.185 (0.282) 0.749*** (0.357)
Number of crops  − 0.488*** (0.461) 0.337 (0.454)  − 0.024 (0.732) 0.834*** (0.422) 1.576*** (0.564)
Drought and floods 0.326 (0.289) 0.078 (0.286) 0.933 (0.475) 0.368 (0.261) 0.247 (0.373)
Market access 0.661** (0.308)  − 0.244*** (0.292) 0.217 (0.480) 0.424 (0.274) 0.455 (0.378)
Sandy soil 0.206** (0.614) 1.082 (0.583) 0.158 (0.905) 1.191*** (0.572) 0.715 (0.659)
Clay soil 0.623 (0.415) 0.524 (0.408) 0.951 (0.542) 0.569 (0.389) 1.298*** (0.442)
Flat slope 0.159** (0.540)  − 0.441 (0.490)  − 0.629 (0.840)  − 0.711** (0.454)  − 0.599 (0.621)
Moderate to steep  − 0.989* (0.729) 0.009 (0.637)  − 0.451 (1.280)  − 0.034 (0.604) 0.090 (0.707)
Northern 0.124*** (0.382) 0.572 (0.360)  − 0.691*** (0.558) 1.235*** (0.345) 0.584 (0.447)
Upper East 0.805** (0.470) 1.494 (0.466)  − 0.647** (0.941) 1.722*** (0.431) 1.134 (0.590)
Distance to weekly market 0.149*** (0.143)  − 0.183* (0.140)  − 0.028 (0.195)  − 0.093 (0.132)  − 0.236** (0.152)
Minutes 30 to plot 0.146*** (0.268)  − 0.299 (0.267) 0.177 (0.451)  − 0.374** (0.247)  − 0.414 (0.320)
Constant  − 1.970 (1.234)  − 0.625 (1.207)  − 3.274* (1.812)  − 3.359*** (1.147)  − 7.725*** (1.435)
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses; ***p < 0.01; **p < 0.05; *p < 0.1; Upper West is used as the reference region
  2. We checked the Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives (IIA) assumption using the Stata command "mlogtest, iia” after estimating the MNL model. The results show that adding or deleting alternative outcome categories does not affect the odds among the remaining outcomes, confirming the validity of our MNL model estimates