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Table 5 Market dominance using Wald test in the VECM

From: Spatial market integration of rice in Bangladesh in the presence of transaction cost

Market pairs Causality test Results
H0: α1 = 0 vs H0: α2 = 0 vs
\(H_{1} :\alpha_{1} \ne 0{ }\) \(H_{1} :\alpha_{2} \ne 0{ }\)
Mymensingh-Dhaka 1.102 2.767** Unidirectional
Rajshahi-Dhaka 0.465 6.320*** Unidirectional
Khulna-Dhaka 2.055 8.077*** Unidirectional
Chattogram-Dhaka 4.393*** 4.198*** Bidirectional
Rajshahi-Mymensingh 1.112 4.196*** Unidirectional
Chattogram-Mymensingh 6.132*** 0.533 Unidirectional
Khulna-Mymensingh 3.529** 1.810 Unidirectional
Khulna-Rajshahi 6.895*** 3.643** Bidirectional
Chattogram-Rajshahi 9.653*** 0.737 Unidirectional
Chattogram-Khulna 6.169*** 3.596** Bidirectional
  1. ** and *** indicate the null hypotheses are rejected at 1% and 5% level of significant, respectively