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Table 5 Spatial regression model results using inverse distance matrix weights

From: Understanding linkages between common agricultural policy and High Nature Value (HNV) farmland provision: an empirical analysis in Tuscany Region

Variable Inverse distances
SAR SEM
Model 2b Model 3b
HNV at year 2000 hnv_2000 0.4108*** 0.444***
Share of farmers older than 60 years old d_old 0.102 0.1021
Share of farmers younger than 40 years old d_young −0.1706 −0.201
Share of farms using external labour (%) extlab −0.2324*** −0.2546***
Share of part time farms (%) partime −0.0440 −0.0155
Share of individual farms (%) Coltdir 0.2029 0.1885
Share of farms with legal status different than society and individual farm (%) Condoth 1.0962*** 1.126***
Share of farmers that live on-farm (%) live_on −0.006 −0.013
Average farm size (ha) size 0.1643** 0.219**
Share of farms with only one plot (%) Plot −0.0043 −0.0086
Share of farms who sell quality products (%) d_quality −0.0015 0.0134
Average SFP per ha (100 €) SFP −0.2903* −0.267*
Average RPD –first axis payments per ha (€ ) axis1 −0.0023 −0.0024
Average RPD –third axis payments per ha (€) axis3 0.0023 0.0018
Share of participating in measure 121 (% of farmers) rdp_121 −0.5146* −0.6105*
Sum of payments for integrated production (ln) int 0.3487 0.4
Sum of payments for organic production (ln) org 0.6510*** 0.7006***
Sum of compensation payments (ln) comp 0.1051 0.0757
Sum of forestry payments (ln) for −0.3774 −0.315
Location in urban area (dummy) poli_urb −1.4979 −3.0733
Location in intensive agricultural area (dummy) rur_int −3.8860* −5.9831***
Location in declining rural area (dummy) rur_decl 4.7889*** 5.5520***
Location in rural area with developing problems (dummy) rur_probsv 5.0807** 5.3670**
UAA classified as Natura2000 sites (ha) nat2000 0.0009 0.0010
UAA classified as Nitrate Vulnerable directive (ha) Nvz −0.0018 −0.0017*
_cons   −21.9909 5.6722
rho   0.673***  
lambda    0.3935
N   285 285
r2    
r2_a   0.569 0.553
aic   2112.043 2120.174
bic   2214.313 2222.444
  1. (***significant at 0.01; **significant at 0.05; *significant at 0.1).