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Table 3 Logit results of farmer adoption of computerized/automated technology, 2010 (Standard errors in parenthesis)

From: The adoption of technologies, management practices, and production systems in U.S. milk production

Variable Units Computerized Feed Delivery System Computerized Milking System Computer to Manage Dairy Records
   β Marg Effect β Marg Effect β Marg Effect
Constant   –4.8220*** (0.8249)   –5.6313*** (0.9065)   –2.7211*** (0.6024)  
Farm Structure        
Cows No./100 0.1220*** (0.0336) 0.0074*** (0.0020) 0.0214 (0.0195) 0.0010 (0.0010) 0.4062*** (0.1406) 0.0892*** (0.0330)
Acres No./100 0.0515** (0.0225) 0.0031** (0.0010) 0.0791*** (0.0261) 0.0038*** (0.0010) 0.1081*** (0.0334) 0.0237*** (0.0070)
Owned Portion –0.4698* (0.2717) –0.0285* (0.0162) 0.2866*** (0.1052) 0.0138*** (0.0050) 0.1438 (0.1046) 0.0316 (0.0231)
Specialized Portion 1.9100** (0.7621) 0.1161** (0.0477) 2.0391** (0.8850) 0.0983** (0.0425) 0.7340 (0.6151) 0.1612 (0.1334)
Organic 0-1 –0.9541** (0.3986) –0.0419*** (0.0154) –0.5936* (0.3557) –0.0231* (0.0131) 0.0266 (0.2031) 0.0059 (0.0449)
Pasture-based 0-1 –0.0877 (0.5212) –0.0052 (0.0301) –0.3445 (0.5208) –0.0152 (0.0201) –0.2756 (0.2593) –0.0587 (0.0527)
Farmer Demographics        
Age Yrs./10 0.1025 (0.1009) 0.0062 (0.0062) 0.1017 (0.1078) 0.0049 (0.0051) 0.0002 (0.0684) 0.0000 (0.0150)
College 0-1 0.5915* (0.3127) 0.0440 (0.0278) 0.8527*** (0.2893) 0.0559** (0.0239) 1.0507*** (0.2400) 0.2506*** (0.0580)
Regions        
West 0-1 0.4910 (0.4646) 0.0367 (0.0408) 0.0486 (0.4873) 0.0024 (0.0244) 0.7398* (0.3949) 0.1769* (0.0975)
Pacific 0-1 0.3543 (0.4289) 0.0247 (0.0334) 0.9872** (0.3992) 0.0715* (0.0391) 0.3691 (0.4413) –0.0587 (0.0527)
Southeast 0-1 –0.9249* (0.5238) –0.0385** (0.0161) –3.6464 (2.2622) –0.0513*** (0.0088) 0.1809 (0.3427) 0.0409* (0.0789)
Corn Belt 0-1 0.3359 (0.3528) 0.0225 (0.0250) –0.0159 (0.3860) –0.0008 (0.0185) 0.3226 (0.2174) 0.0732 (0.0501)
Northern Plains 0-1 –0.0263 (0.5652) –0.0016 (0.0336) –0.6097 (0.7224) –0.0227 (0.0209) 0.3226 (0.2174) –0.0277 (0.0849)
Appalachia 0-1 –0.1633 (0.3950) –0.0093 (0.0215) –0.0257 (0.3921) –0.0012 (0.0186) –0.2235 (0.2494) –0.0472 (0.0511)
Northeast 0-1 –0.1040 (0.4136) –0.0062 (0.0241) 0.0795 (0.4258) 0.0039 (0.0212) –0.0914 (0.2640) –0.0199 (0.0571)
Southern Plains 0-1 –2.0439** (1.0421) –0.0586*** (0.0137) –3.6757 (3.0604)   –0.6904 (0.4545) –0.1317* (0.0754)
Diagnostics        
Pseudo R-square   0.1511   0.1266   0.1989  
Constant   –1.3024*** (0.5003)   –1.8703*** (0.5522)   –4.4040*** (0.9720)  
Farm Structure        
Cows No./100 0.2420** (0.0998) 0.0605** (0.0250) 0.3545* (0.1933) 0.0877* (0.0490) 0.0369* (0.0199) 0.0012* (0.0007)
Acres No./100 0.0820*** (0.0293) 0.0205*** (0.0070) 0.1654*** (0.0421) 0.0409*** (0.0100) 0.0090 (0.0174) 0.0002 (0.0010)
Owned Portion 0.0285 (0.1061) 0.0071 (0.0265) 0.1133 (0.1227) 0.0280 (0.0304) 0.0779 (0.1115) 0.0025 (0.0035)
Specialized Portion 1.0941** (0.4581) 0.2733** (0.1145) 1.1199** (0.5113) 0.2769** (0.1250) –0.5187 (0.6899) –0.0168 (0.0227)
Organic 0-1 0.0297 (0.1730) 0.0074 (0.0432) –0.6630*** (0.2012) –0.1552*** (0.0439) –0.6928 (0.4412) –0.0174* (0.0096)
Pasture-based 0-1 –0.3330 (0.2134) –0.0830 (0.0528) –0.7728*** (0.2555) –0.1821*** (0.0547) –0.9543* (0.5126) –0.0243** (0.0098)
Farmer Demographics        
Age Yrs./10 –0.0318 (0.0701) –0.0079 (0.0175) –0.0911 (0.0686) –0.0225 (0.0170) 0.2504*** (0.0951) 0.0810** (0.0350)
College 0-1 1.5028*** (0.2834) 0.3286*** (0.0485) 0.8154*** (0.2822) 0.2006*** (0.0666) 0.1055 (0.2457) 0.0035 (0.0085)
Regions        
West 0-1 0.1956 (0.3883) 0.0486 (0.0957) –1.2902** (0.6198) –0.2677*** (0.1018) 1.2892** (0.5237) 0.0766* (0.0460)
Pacific 0-1 –0.0166 (0.3635) –0.0042 (0.0908) 1.2490*** (0.4616) 0.2944*** (0.0972) 3.6362*** (0.4186) 0.4907*** (0.0799)
Southeast 0-1 –0.4735 (0.3227) –0.1170 (0.0779) –1.5584*** (0.5061) –0.3041*** (0.0749) 2.3456*** (0.4211) 0.2279*** (0.0668)
Corn Belt 0-1 –0.3144 (0.2014) –0.0784 (0.0500) –0.3053 (0.2074) –0.0744 (0.0500) –0.2714 (0.5588) –0.0081 (0.0158)
Northern Plains 0-1 –0.1517 (0.4114) –0.0379 (0.1027) 0.9535** (0.4754) 0.2304** (0.1046) 0.4631 (0.8462) 0.0186 (0.0408)
Appalachia 0-1 –0.7061*** (0.2290) –0.1719*** (0.0531) 0.5523** (0.2214) 0.1372** (0.0541) –0.0985 (0.5255) –0.0031 (0.0159)
Northeast 0-1 –0.6250*** (0.2307) –0.1548*** (0.0560) –0.2459 (0.2386) –0.0603 (0.0579) 0.0964 (0.5536) 0.0032 (0.0186)
Southern Plains 0-1 –0.6308 (0.4073) –0.1542 (0.0950) –1.6702*** (0.5661) –0.3204*** (0.0789) 1.7811*** (0.5201) 0.1327** (0.0624)
Diagnostics        
Pseudo R-square   0.1223   0.1916   0.3086  
  1. Note: *, **, and *** indicate significance at the P ≤0.10, P ≤0.05, and P ≤0.01 levels, respectively.