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Table 5 Socioeconomic characteristics of organic and conventional farmers: descriptive statistics (a)

From: Socioeconomic determinants of organic cotton adoption in Benin, West Africa

  Conventional (n = 98) Organic (n = 93) Total (n = 191) Statistical test (b)
Age of the producer (year) 40.5 (11.5) 43.5 (12.5) 42.0 (12.0) −1.75*
Sex of the producer (% of male) 91.8 49.5 71.2 41.79***
Formal education of the producer (year) 3.0 (3.7) 1.1 (2.4) 2.1 (3.3) 4.23***
Experience in cotton production in general (year) 13.7 (10.4) 10.8 (9.6) 12.3 (10.1) 1.97*
Distance between the producer’s house and his farm (km) 5.0 (7.4) 2.5 (2.0) 3.8 (5.6) 3.20***
Household size (number of members) 10.0 (7.2) 8.8 (5.2) 9.4 (6.3) 1.31
Land available for the household (ha) 17.4 (20.0) 16.1 (25.8) 16.8 (23.0) 0.39
Distance between the village and the nearest market place where producer sell their products (km) 6.3 (8.7) 8.0 (11.1) 7.1 (9.9) −1.18
Obtained credit (% of yes) 28.6 25.8 27.2 0.18
Membership of producers’ organization (% of yes) 57.1 90.3 73.3 −26.84***
Contact with extension agents (% of yes) 60.2 90.3 74.9 −23.01***
Contact with extension agents (number of visits between January and October 2012) 1.9 (2.2) 7.0 (8.8) 4.4 (6.8) −5.44***
Number of oxen owned by the producer for animal traction 1.1 (2.0) 0.5 (1.1) 0.8 (1.7) 2.78***
  1. (a)Figures in parenthesis are standard deviations;
  2. (b)Statistical test: Pearson chi-square for dummies and t test others.
  3. ***Significant at 1%, *Significant at 10%.