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Table 5 Mean difference in some welfare indicators between market participants and non-participants

From: Agricultural technology adoption, commercialization and smallholder rice farmers’ welfare in rural Nigeria

Variable All Market participants (N = 398) Non-market participants (N = 165) Difference t-value
Consumption expend. per capita (N) 21897.78 (954.84) 27015.49 (2474.14) 19776.11 (859.47) 7239.38 (2077.27) 3.49***
Rice income per hectare (N) 223555.90 (6109.67) 242161.20 (7584.32) 178677.80 (9122.47) 63483.32 (13164.66) 4.82***
Rice income per capita (N) 28503.33 (1054.86) 31107.86 (1401.26) 22220.53 (1097.74) 8887.84 (2289.01) 3.88***
Total farm income per capita (N) 43188.73 (1607.10) 45329.88 (2168.30) 38024.03 (1586.53) 7305.85 (3520.42) 2.08**
Average yield (kg/ha) 3271.07 (94.35) 3587.00 (118.42) 2509.06 (131.13) 1078.00 (202.42) 5.33***
Total farm size (ha) 2.59 (0.09) 2.47 (0.11) 2.91 (0.16) 0.45 (0.20) 2.21**
Access to credit (%) 23.45 (0.02) 28.14 (0.02) 12.12 (0.03) 16.02 (0.04) 4.14***
  1. Source: Field survey, 2010. ***, **, and * implies significant at 1 %, 5 %, and 10 % respectively
  2. Note: Figures in Parentheses are the standard error