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Table 2 Unit root (ADF) test of time series variables after first differencing (Ho: unit root)

From: Short-term acreage forecasting and supply elasticities for staple food commodities in major producer countries

Corn
 Variable Corn acreage Wheat price Corn price Soy price Fertilizer price Oil price  
  Argentina −4.782   −3.689 −3.699 −5.896 −4.408  
  China −3.888   −3.167 −3.629    
  Brazil, 1st Corn −4.822   −5.888 −6.024 −6.178 −4.474  
  Brazil, 2nd Corn −6.524   −4.800   −6.147 −4.474  
  India, Kharif −4.124   −4.282 −5.012    
  India, Rabi −2.993   −3.461     
  Mexico −8.265   −3.247   −4.284 −5.896  
  Ukraine −5.363    −3.138 −4.604 −4.707  
  USA −6.458   −5.356 −5.279 −6.151 −4.474  
Wheat
 Variable Wheat acreage Wheat price Corn price Soy price Fertilizer price Oil price Wheat diff. WS-MSP
  Argentina −7.111 −4.243   −4.515 −5.896 −4.408  
  Australia −5.671 −5.299    −4.826 −4.804  
  Canada −6.221 −4.044    −4.826 −4.804  
  China, winter w. −2.556 −3.375      
  China, spring w. −1.614 −3.268      
  China, all wheat −2.078 −3.375      
  India −4.653 −6.049      −5.892
  Kazakhstan −2.856 −4.728 −3.766   −4.526 −4.707  
  Russian Federation −4.990 −4.348 −3.215   −4.526 −4.707  
  Ukraine −6.069 −4.088 −4.189 −4.713 −4.604 −4.707  
  USA −6.795 −5.072    −6.151 −4.474  
Soybeans
 Variable Soy acreage Wheat price Corn price Soy price Fertilizer price Oil price  
  Argentina −3.384   −3.495 −3.525 −5.896 −4.408  
  China −4.808   −3.167 −3.629    
  Brazil −6.075   −6.738 --6.517 −6.151 −4.474  
  India −3.476   −2.406 −5.172    
  Ukraine −2.413 −3.952 −3.138 −4.137 −4.604 −4.707  
  USA −3.804   −5.374 −5.543 −6.151 −4.474  
Rice
 Variable Rice acreage Rice price Intern. rice price Rice diff. WS-MSP Rainfall   
  China, early r. −2.646 −2.777      
  China, middle r. −2.542 −2.804      
  China, late rice −2.338 −2.020      
  China, all rice −2.519 −2.372 −2.543     
  India, all rice −4.142 −5. 317   −4.239 −5.610   
  India, Kharif −4.030 −4.299   −3.242 −4.448   
  India, Rabi −2.370 −3.983   −3.224 −4.448   
  1. Critical values are −3.750, −3.000, and −2.630 at the 1, 5, and 10 % significance levels (Fuller 1976 p. 373). The results are ADF tests with one lag and a constant for the variables. The Indian rice and wheat prices refer to the MSP