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Table 3 Probit estimation of factors that affect plot level adoption of minimum tillage in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania

From: Predicting minimum tillage adoption among smallholder farmers using micro-level and policy variables

VARIABLES Pooled with country dummies Pooled with country EFRa and SERb variables Ethiopia Kenya Malawi Tanzania
Sex of household head (male = 1, female = 0) 0.082* 0.082* −0.021 0.417*** 0.067 0.102
(0.047) (0.047) (0.103) (0.151) (0.069) (0.152)
Age of the household head (years) −0.001 −0.001 −0.000 −0.000 −0.001 0.004
(0.001) (0.001) (0.002) (0.004) (0.002) (0.004)
Education of the household head (years completed) 0.002 0.002 0.002 −0.031** 0.007 0.020
(0.004) (0.004) (0.007) (0.014) (0.007) (0.017)
Main source of income is
 Salaried employment (c.f. farming) −0.158 −0.158 −0.913** −0.092 Not estimated −0.181
(0.128) (0.128) (0.394) (0.196) (0.257)
 Non-farm self-employment (c.f. farming) 0.028 0.028 0.015 −0.456** −0.533*
(0.126) (0.126) (0.516) (0.206) (0.289)
 Casual labour (c.f. farming) 0.247* 0.247* 0.55 0.247 Not estimated
(0.149) (0.149) (0.405) (0.183)
 Number of family members −0.010* −0.010* −0.017* −0.006 0.000 0.000
(0.006) (0.006) (0.010) (0.021) (0.012) (0.022)
 Livestock owned (in tropical livestock equivalent (TLU)) −0.000 −0.000 −0.010** −0.052 −0.000 0.005
(0.000) (0.000) (0.005) (0.032) (0.000) (0.007)
 Total farm size in long rain season (ha) 0.008* 0.008* 0.112*** −0.107* 0.003 −0.065***
(0.005) (0.005) (0.014) (0.059) (0.008) (0.020)
 Total non-livestock assets owned by the household in ‘000s US$ 0.023* 0.023* −0.035* −0.162** 0.089*** 0.023*
(0.0012) (0.012) (0.018) (0.066) (0.025) (0.012)
 Number of grain traders from outside village known to respondent −0.004** −0.004** −0.007* 0.008 −0.000 −0.059***
(0.002) (0.002) (0.004) (0.008) (0.003) (0.015)
 Number of non-relatives outside village respondent can rely on for help 0.005*** 0.005*** 0.007*** −0.011* 0.005 0.019***
(0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.006) (0.003) (0.007)
 Household head belongs to a farmers’ association (cooperatives etc.) 1 = yes, 0 otherwise 0.107*** 0.107*** 0.613*** 0.129 −0.242*** 0.166
(0.033) (0.033) (0.055) (0.123) (0.052) (0.113)
 Household is credit constrained (yes = 1) −0.218*** −0.218*** −0.267*** −0.219** −0.062 −0.759***
(0.029) (0.029) (0.046) (0.096) (0.049) (0.144)
 Respondent confident in skill and advice of extension provider (yes = 1) 0.064** 0.064** 0.097* 0.382*** 0.044 0.145
(0.035) (0.031) (0.050) (0.100) (0.056) (0.108)
 Medium soil fertility (c.f. poor soil fertility) 0.082 0.082 0.207** 0.437** 0.042 0.548***
(0.051) (0.051) (0.099) (0.179) (0.076) (0.204)
 Good soil fertility (c.f. poor soil fertility) −0.038 −0.038 0.304*** 0.553*** −0.337*** 0.524**
(0.051) (0.051) (0.100) (0.187) (0.075) (0.218)
 Medium sloped plot (c.f. gentle/flat) 0.180*** 0.180*** 0.343*** 0.231** 0.029 0.234**
(0.032) (0.032) (0.050) (0.100) (0.056) (0.103)
 Steep sloped plot (c.f. gentle/flat) −0.199*** −0.199*** −0.089 0.228 −0.136* −0.854***
 Walking minutes to the nearest market −0.001*** −0.001*** 0.000 0.000 −0.002** −0.003***
(0.000) (0.000) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
 Kenya dummy −1.168***      
(0.057)      
 Malawi dummy 0.359***      
(0.076)      
 Tanzania dummy −0.669***      
(0.061)      
 Number of extension personnel per 10,000 farmers   0.151***     
  (0.007)     
 Percent of agricultural budget spent on subsidy   0.055***     
  (0.004)     
 Drought perceived as a major future risk (yes = 1)     0.266**   
    (0.104)   
 Pests and diseases perceived as a major future risk (yes = 1)     0.019   
    (0.104)   
 High input and low crop prices perceived as a major future risk (yes = 1)     −0.018   
    (0.115)   
 Personal health or economic situation perceived as a major future risk (yes = 1)     0.773***   
    (0.103)   
 Constant −0.080 −3.941*** −0.352* −1.231*** −0.090 −0.891**
(0.099) (0.353) (0.182) (0.384) (0.167) (0.401)
  1. aExtension-personnel-to-farmer ratio
  2. bSubsidy as a percentage of agricultural expenditures
  3. *, ** and *** refer to the significance levels of 10%, 5% and 1% respectively