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Table 4 Asymmetries in vertical price transmission

From: The effect of EU 2006 sugar regime reform on vertical price transmission

  Member States Ex-work price to retail price Retail price to ex-work price
Toward price increase Toward price decrease Toward price increase Toward price decrease
Pre-reform Post-reform Pre-reform Post-reform Pre-reform Post-reform Pre-reform Post-reform
EU-15 France x x x
Germany x x
Greece x x x x
Netherlands x x
Spain x x x
United King. x
NMS-12 Czech Rep. x
Poland x x x
Romania x x
  1. Source: adapted from Areté srl Research and Consulting in Economics, 2012