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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of variables for coordinated and non-coordinated farms

From: Do durum wheat producers benefit of vertical coordination?

Variables All sample Vertically coordinated farms Non-coordinated farms
  (obs. 2450)   (obs. 183) (obs. 2267)
  Mean Std.dev Mean Mean
Farmer age (years) 59.81 13.31 58.86 59.89
Farmer education (degree) 3.72 1.52 4.09 3.69
Farmer gender (1 = female, 0 male) 0.22 N.A 0.15 0.22
Location (1 if farms located in south of Italy) 0.50 N.A 0.47 0.50
Conduction (1 if farms without employed workers, 0 otherwise) 0.67 N.A 0.52 0.69
Quality certification (1 = presence, 0 otherwise) 0.03 N.A 0.06 0.02
Organic certification (1 = presence, 0 otherwise) 0.03 N.A 0.04 0.03
Investment in the last 5 years (1 = yes, 0 otherwise) 0.33 N.A 0.39 0.33
Land property (€/ha) 61.31 120.65 83.91 59.48
Farm UAA hectares 59.82 77.37 91.73 57.25
Intensity of mechanization (kw/ha) 5.97 5.63 4.92 6.05
Irrigation (1 = presence, 0 otherwise) 0.07 N.A 0.09 0.07
Gross sales (per hectare) 1107.95 742.60 1234.11 1097.77
Relative profit differences 1.37 2.39 2.53 1.28
Fixed costs (per hectare) 244.68 262.35 232.39 245.67
Variable costs (per hectare) 646.16 517.83 697 642.06
Wheat—yield (q.ls/ha) 37.83 12.30 38.34 37.79
Wheat—gross sales (per hectare) 921.53 387.65 1021.81 913.44
Wheat—gross margin (per hectare) 566.45 374.75 669.06 558.17
Wheat—variable costs (per hectare) 355.09 173.79 352.75 355.28
  1. N.A not applicable