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Table 4 Items and scales used in the questionnaire

From: A structural equation modeling analysis of relational governance and economic performance in agri-food supply chains: evidence from the dairy sheep industry in Sardinia (Italy)

Variables Items Scale Mean St. Dev.
Governance GOV What type of relation do you have with your commercial partners? “1 = verbal agreements,” “2 = cooperative membership,” “3 = formal contracts” 1.95 0.77
Milk price MLP What was the average price of milk in the last 2 years? Quantitative/continuous 0.72 0.79
Firm size SIZE What is the size of your firm (number of sheep)? “1 = small,” “2 = medium,” “3 = large” 2.01 0.72
Dimensions
 Environment
  Technology TECH (Multi item, α = 0.75)    
  TECH1 What type of technology do you use in breeding? “1 = manual”, “2 = semi-automated”, “3 = automated” 1.36 0.51
  TECH2 What type of technology do you use in milk production? “1 = manual”, “2 = semi-automated”, “3 = automated” 1.31 0.49
  Association ASC Trade associations provide an excellent support for firms Five-point Likert: from “1 = strongly disagree” to “5 = strongly agree” 2.77 1.34
  Credit CRE Banks provide an excellent financial support Five-point Likert: from “1 = strongly disagree” to “5 = strongly agree” 1.90 0.88
 Product
  Local origin LOC (Multi item, α = 0.76)    
  LOC1 I have a strong connection with Sardinian agricultural and sheep-rearing traditions Five-point Likert: from “1 = strongly disagree” to “5 = strongly agree” 4.39 0.80
  LOC2 I use production methods arising from the local cultural context five-point Likert: from “1 = strongly disagree” to “5 = strongly agree” 4.36 0.85
  Safety SAFE My commercial partners perform regular milk quality tests Five-point Likert: from “1 = never” to “5 = always” 4.66 0.61
  Quality QUA (Multi item, α = 0.95)    
  QUA1 Milk is produced with wild breeding Five-point Likert: from “1 = never” to “5 = always” 4.35 1.11
  QUA2 Milk produced with wild breeding is of superior quality Five-point Likert: from “1 = strongly disagree” to “5 = strongly agree” 4.45 0.98
Relationship
 Trust TRU (Multi item, α = 0.94)    
  TRU1 My commercial partners provide correct information Five-point Likert: from “1 = strongly disagree” to “5 = strongly agree” 3.63 1.17
  TRU2 My commercial partners fulfill their promises Five-point Likert: from “1 = strongly disagree” to “5 = strongly agree” 3.59 1.25
 Uncertainty UNC I know in advance the price of milk Five-point Likert: from “1 = strongly agree” to “5 = strongly disagree” 2.23 1.45
 Investments INV I made investments to meet the needs of my commercial partners Five-point Likert: from “1 = strongly disagree” to “5 = strongly agree” 2.05 1.56