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Table 5 Average treatment effect (ATE) on farmers’ livelihoods

From: Promoting ecosystem-friendly irrigation farm management practices for sustainable livelihoods in Africa: the Ghanaian experience

Variables Coefficients Robust standard error
Average treatment effect (ATE)
 Category (above average adoption vs. below average adoption) 2.977*** .569
Potential outcome mean
 Category (below average adoption) 75.757*** .440
  Number of observations = 300   
  Iteration 0: EE criterion = 8.657e−28   
  Iteration 1: EE criterion = 7.733e−30   
  Outcome model: linear   
  Treatment model: none   
  1. Values statistically significant at 1%
  2. Source: Field survey, 2016