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Table 8 Livelihood indicators of farmers and scores of measurements

From: Promoting ecosystem-friendly irrigation farm management practices for sustainable livelihoods in Africa: the Ghanaian experience

Livelihood indicators Scores of measurement Total score
A. Monthly food availability Scores for all months in the year HTS = 36, LTS = 12 \( {\mathrm{IFIPS}}_i^{FA}=\frac{{\mathrm{IFFS}}_i^{FA}}{36}\times 100 \)
 January Sufficient = 3 Insufficient = 2 Extreme shortage = 1
 February
 *
 *
 *
 December
B. Housing conditions Scores for housing condition parameters HTS = 16, LTS = 5 \( {\mathrm{IFIPS}}_i^{HC}=\frac{{\mathrm{IFFS}}_i^{HC}}{16}\times 100 \)
 Ownership of house Personal house = 3 Family house = 2 Rented house = 1
 Number of rooms roofed with roofing sheets (e.g. aluminium or zinc sheets) All rooms = 3 Half of the rooms = 2 Below half = 1
 Number of rooms built with cement blocks All rooms = 3 Half of the rooms = 2 Below half = 1
 Number of rooms floored All rooms = 3 Half of the rooms = 2 Below half = 1
 General impression Excellent = 4 Very good = 3 Good = 2 Bad = 1
C. Health situation Scores for health situation parameters HTS = 11, LTS = 4 \( {\mathrm{IFIPS}}_i^{HS}=\frac{{\mathrm{IFFS}}_i^{HS}}{11}\times 100 \)
 Availability of close-by health facility District hospital/community health centre/CHPS compound = 2 No health facility closely available = 1
 Access to district hospital/community health centre All household members = 3 Some members = 2 No access = 1
 Access to herbal treatment Always = 3 Difficult = 2 Not at all = 1
 Pharmacy Always = 3 Difficult = 2 Not at all = 1
D. Water facilities Scores for water facilities parameters HTS = 43, LTS = 14 \( {\mathrm{IFIPS}}_i^{WF}=\frac{{\mathrm{IFFS}}_i^{WF}}{43}\times 100 \)
 Source of water Borehole/pipe = 4 Mechanised well = 3 Uncovered well = 2 River/pond = 1
 Perceived quality of drinking water Good = 3 Clean but smells = 2 Unclean = 1
 Monthly availability of water Adequate = 3 Inadequate = 2 Scarcity = 1
 January  
 February
 *
 *
 *
 December
E. Decision-making in cash expenditure Scores on decision parameters HTS = 20, LTS = 5 \( {\mathrm{IFIPS}}_i^{FCE}=\frac{{\mathrm{IFFS}}_i^{FCE}}{20}\times 100 \)
 Daily expenditure Farmer = 4 Farmer and spouse = 3 Spouse = 2 Extended family = 1
 Investment on land
 Children’s education
 Households assets
 Health
F. Sanitation Scores on sanitation parameters HTS = 6, LTS = 2 \( {\mathrm{IFIPS}}_i^S=\frac{{\mathrm{IFFS}}_i^S}{6}\times 100 \)
 Possession of toilet Owned toilet = 3 Community toilet = 2 None = 1
 Condition of toilet Hygienic = 3 Better = 2 Unhygienic = 1
G. Participation of in social activities Freedom to participate = 2 Limited freedom to participate = 1 HTS = 2, LTS = 1 \( {\mathrm{IFIPS}}_i^P=\frac{{\mathrm{IFFS}}_i^P}{2}\times 100 \)
H. Health of ecosystem services Scores on health of ecosystems services parameters HTS = 30, LTS = 10 \( {\mathrm{IFIPS}}_i^{Eco}=\frac{{\mathrm{IFFS}}_i^{Eco}}{30}\times 100 \)
 Fish availability Sustained = 3 Deteriorating = 2 Worsened = 1
 Vegetation for animals
 Availability of medical plants
 Fuel wood availability
 Fruits availability
 Water availability recreational purposes
 Flood control
 Erosion control
 Siltation control
 Pests and diseases control
I. Income Scores on farm income  
 Category of last season’s crops value (GH₵) Category (GH₵) Score HTS = 11, LTS = 1 \( {\mathrm{IFIPS}}_i^{Inc}=\frac{{\mathrm{IFFS}}_i^{Inc}}{11}\times 100 \)
< 1000 1
1001 to 2000 2
2001 to 3000 3
3001 to 4000 4
4001 to 5000 5
5001 to 6000 6
6001 to 7000 7
7001 to 8000 8
8001 to 9000 9
9001 to 10,000 10
10,000+ 11
  1. HTS highest total score, LTS lowest total score
  2. Source: Adopted and modified from Sheheli (2012)