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Table 1 Descriptive and summary statistics

From: Welfare and food security response of animal feed and water resource scarcity in Northern Ethiopia

Variables N = 518
  Description Mean SD
Dependent variables
 FE Monetary value of food expenditure in ETBa 13,571.4 19,717.4
 PCFE Monetary value of per capita food expenditure in ETB 2490 3722
 Output Monetary value of crop productionb in ETB 41,645 87,517
 FI Food Security Indexc 0.4826 0.5001
Independent variables
 ShadowPW Shadow price of water 147.6 204.9
 ShadowPG Shadow price of grazing 205.0 282.0
 ShadowPF Shadow price of crop residue 12.52 18.96
 WaterD Distance to animal water source in walking minute 74.85 65.54
 GrazingD Time spent looking for grazing land in walking minute 91.12 83.44
 FeedD Time to transport crop reside in walking minute 576.55 557.87
 Income Monetary value of total incomed 49,521 92,642
Family size Household family size 5.873 2.413
Age Household head age 56.83 15.20
Gender 1 = male 0.743 0.437
Education 1 = literate 0.326 0.469
TLU Herd size in TLU 3.919 3.199
MarketD Market distance in minute 82.30 54.79
Shocks (2012–2014) Number of shocks due to theft, flood, death 0.577 0.826
Information 1 = access to TV, radio, and mobile 0.417 0.494
Location 1 = highland (> 2500 m.a.s.l.) 0.0637 0.244
Network 1 = support from relatives and friends 0.610 0.488
Religion 1 = orthodox and 0 Muslim 0.824 0.381
Ashock13 1 = face animal shock in 2013 0.0425 0.202
  1. aETB refers to Ethiopian currency where 1 USD≈23 ETB during the study year (2015)
  2. bIt includes crop, fruit, and vegetable production
  3. cA household is considered food secure if it attains at least two thirds of the average PCFE of all households and considered food insecure if it falls below that value
  4. dIt includes income from Agriculture, off-farm, business transfer, and safety net