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Table 3 IV estimation of log per capita food expenditure using walking distance

From: Welfare and food security response of animal feed and water resource scarcity in Northern Ethiopia

Variables (OLS) (IV) (OLS) (IV) (OLS) (IV)
lnPCFE lnPCFE lnPCFE lnPCFE lnPCFE lnPCFE
Ln(output) 0.0940*** 0.0629*** 0.0909*** 0.0631*** 0.0986*** 0.0685***
(0.0121) (0.0164) (0.0125) (0.0164) (0.0122) (0.0164)
Ln(livestock) 0.0336*** 0.0287** 0.0334** 0.0298** 0.0352*** 0.0305**
(0.0129) (0.0134) (0.0131) (0.0134) (0.0130) (0.0135)
Ln(Family size) − 0.385*** − 0.362*** − 0.397*** − 0.374*** − 0.388*** − 0.366***
(0.0529) (0.0551) (0.0535) (0.0554) (0.0534) (0.0554)
Gender(1/0) − 0.119** − 0.136** − 0.0993* − 0.114* − 0.115* − 0.133**
(0.0588) (0.0608) (0.0590) (0.0607) (0.0593) (0.0613)
Information(1/0) 0.0591 0.0409 0.0454 0.0288 0.0487 0.0299
(0.0539) (0.0558) (0.0545) (0.0562) (0.0544) (0.0563)
Location(1/0) − 0.0411 − 0.0519 − 0.114 − 0.129 − 0.149 − 0.169
(0.140) (0.144) (0.140) (0.143) (0.141) (0.145)
Ln(marketD) 0.00283 0.0166 0.00252 0.0165 0.00144 0.0146
(0.0337) (0.0350) (0.0340) (0.0353) (0.0340) (0.0353)
Ashock13(1/0) − 0.489** − 0.399** − 0.550*** − 0.463** − 0.540*** − 0.457**
(0.191) (0.199) (0.192) (0.200) (0.193) (0.200)
Ln(shocks) 0.212 0.345* 0.307 0.434** 0.267 0.401*
(0.198) (0.209) (0.199) (0.210) (0.200) (0.210)
Religion(1/0) 0.121* 0.146** 0.101 0.124* 0.115 0.140*
(0.0700) (0.0726) (0.0705) (0.0727) (0.0706) (0.0730)
Network(1/0) − 0.0833 − 0.172*** − 0.0761 − 0.158** − 0.0729 − 0.159**
(0.0554) (0.0647) (0.0559) (0.0647) (0.0558) (0.0649)
Age(years) − 0.000477 − 0.000749 − 0.000535 − 0.000786 − 0.000554 − 0.000829
(0.00174) (0.00179) (0.00175) (0.00180) (0.00175) (0.00180)
Ln(income) 0.0440*** 0.0565*** 0.0433*** 0.0552*** 0.0439*** 0.0562***
(0.00187) (0.00473) (0.00189) (0.00476) (0.00189) (0.00475)
Ln(WaterD) − 0.122*** − 0.131***     
(0.0309) (0.0320)     
Ln(GrazingD)    − 0.100*** − 0.0888**   
   (0.0336) (0.0347)   
Ln(FeedD)      − 0.0642*** − 0.0716***
     (0.0240) (0.0248)
Constant 6.018*** 5.970*** 6.046*** 5.898*** 5.917*** 5.880***
(0.291) (0.300) (0.318) (0.330) (0.305) (0.319)
R-squared 0.710 0.683 0.705 0.681 0.705 0.679
First stage
 Shock   − 20.132***   − 20.122***   − 20.140***
  (2.1697)   (2.1718)   (2.1686)
 Rainfall   0.1655**   0.1612**   0.1657**
  (0.0573)   (0.0577)   (0.0572)
 Observation 496 496 496 496 496 496
  1. P values are for slopes: ***P < 0.01; **P < 0.05, and *P < 0.10 = significant at 1%, 5%, and 10% probability levels, respectively