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Table 1 Description and summary statistics of selected variables

From: Determinants of the competitiveness of smallholder African indigenous vegetable farmers in high-value agro-food chains in Kenya: A multivariate probit regression analysis

Variables Description Mean Std. Dev.
Dependent variables
 Access to high-value markets 1 if household has access to high-value AIV markets, 0 otherwise 0.20 0.403
 Membership to farmers’ groups 1 if household head/spouse are members of a farmers’ group, 0 otherwise 0.37 0.482
 Access to credit services 1 if household has access to credit services, 0 otherwise 0.19 0.395
 Access to extension services 1 if household has access to extension/training services, 0 otherwise 0.37 0.483
Independent variables
 Household size Total number of household/family members 5.62 2.283
 Gender 1 if gender of household head is male, 0 otherwise 0.81 0.396
 Age Age of household head in years 49.76 12.632
 Marital status 1 if household head is married, 0 otherwise 0.80 0.399
 Education Years of education of the household head 9.44 4.605
 Land tenure 1 if farm is owned, 0 otherwise 0.89 0.315
 Coping with PMS 1 if household copes with production and marketing shocks, 0 otherwise 0.79 0.422
 Farm location 1 if farm is in rural area, 0 otherwise 0.65 0.476
 Land size Total size of land owned by the household in acres 0.92 2.044
 AIV intensification Proportion of AIV land area to total household land size fully owned 0.35 0.256
 Fertile soil 1 if farm is very fertile, 0 otherwise 0.55 0.498
 Distance to watering point Total distance to the nearest main water source in kilometres 0.35 2.127
 Distance to market Total distance to the nearest markets in kilometres 2.38 2.517
 Distance to agro-vet Total distance to the nearest agro-vet in kilometres 2.17 3.572
 Type of irrigation system 1 if household uses modern irrigation system, 0 otherwise 0.16 0.367
 TLU* Total household livestock units 0.76 0.574
 Number of farm enterprises Total number of farm enterprises in a household 5.57 2.276
 Grading of AIV 1 if household grades AIVs before selling, 0 otherwise 0.37 0.482
 Off-farm income 1 if household has access to off-farm income, 0 otherwise 0.29 0.454
 Access to information 1 if household has access to AIV market information, 0 otherwise 0.37 0.484
 Access to warning on shocks 1 if household has access to warnings about shocks, 0 otherwise 0.16 0.367
 Contract farming 1 if household has access to contract farming, 0 otherwise 0.08 0.268
 Certification 1 if household is a certified AIV producer, 0 otherwise 0.28 0.452
  1. *Total livestock units as defined in Jahnke (1982)