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Table 2 Sample mean statistics by agricultural participation categories

From: The geography of agriculture participation and food security in a small and a medium-sized city in Ghana

Variable Categories of engagement in agriculture 
(1) Overall n = 2004(2) No agric.(Nonp) n = 1130(3) Urban only (Uonly) n = 417(4) Rural only (Ronly) n = 354(5) Urban and rural (UandR) n = 103(6) p value
Food security score (0–27)23.2623.0623.6822.9224.890.001
Food security status:      
 Severely insecure0.1960.2070.1970.1840.1170.148
 Moderately insecure0.2120.2160.1820.2630.1170.004
 Mildly insecure0.1180.1030.1270.1410.1650.074
 Food secure0.4740.4740.4940.4120.6020.005
Commercial orientation0.6410.5560.6860.8250.000
Female HH head0.2220.2740.2010.1240.0580.000
Age of HH head44.6141.5248.5947.8351.230.000
Age of spouse38.3336.8941.2539.2539.140.000
Married HH head0.7560.6960.7940.8560.9220.000
Years schooling: HH head5.6916.4325.4494.0614.1520.000
Years schooling: spouse4.5425.1664.4563.4281.8720.000
Years schooling: other0.4600.3800.5610.5450.6310.000
HH size4.7414.1715.2425.5596.1460.000
Under-15-year-olds1.7001.5261.8611.9602.0680.000
Above-64-year-olds0.1770.1310.2230.2370.2910.000
Working-age members2.7782.4343.0723.2543.7280.000
Share of dependants0.3600.3490.3740.3800.3470.102
Nuclear household0.5620.5440.5680.6100.5630.183
Receives cash transfer0.1940.2170.1990.1240.1650.001
Receives food transfer0.3090.3380.2540.2940.2720.010
Nonfarm income dummy0.8760.8960.8470.8500.8740.023
Nonfarm income earners1.5611.5151.6141.6191.6500.142
Livestock producer0.289 0.6350.6440.8350.000
Monthly pc income (US$)80.4186.1777.9265.8577.280.024
Own house0.3120.2750.3930.3080.3980.000
Chronically sick HH head0.1580.1560.1630.1610.1550.984
Chronically sick partner0.0950.0730.1200.1270.1170.003
Chronically sick member0.1300.1110.1290.1750.1840.005
Indebted0.1070.0910.1440.0960.1650.005
Unemployed HH head0.0550.0800.0260.0200.0190.000
Unemployed spouse0.0760.0870.0620.0540.0870.128
Unemployed adult0.1630.1420.1770.2150.1460.010
  1. The p values are based on joint F-statistics for the hypothesis that the value of a given variable is identical across the four categories of urban household engagement in agriculture
  2. †Commercial orientation is defined as the share of UA participating households that produced and sold some of their output