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Table 4 Ordered probit estimates of participation in agriculture and food security (overall sample)

From: The geography of agriculture participation and food security in a small and a medium-sized city in Ghana

Variables Average marginal effects
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Coef.SevereModerateMildSecure
Participation in agriculture (ref. is UandR
Nonp− 0.437***0.0950.0520.010− 0.158
Uonly− 0.385***0.0820.0470.010− 0.139
Ronly− 0.449***0.0990.0540.010− 0.163
Female HH head− 0.264***0.0710.024− 0.000− 0.095
Age of HH head0.007**− 0.002− 0.001− 0.0000.003
Age of spouse− 0.0050.0010.0000.000− 0.002
Married HH head0.067− 0.017− 0.007− 0.0000.024
Years schooling: HH head− 0.0000.0000.0000.000− 0.000
Years schooling: spouse0.060***− 0.015− 0.006− 0.0000.022
Years schooling: other adult0.070− 0.018− 0.007− 0.0000.025
HH size0.021− 0.005− 0.002− 0.0000.008
Share of dependants0.009− 0.002− 0.001− 0.0000.003
Received cash transfer0.013− 0.003− 0.001− 0.0000.005
Received food transfer0.102*− 0.026− 0.010− 0.0010.037
No. of nonfarm income earners0.022− 0.006− 0.002− 0.0000.008
Monthly per capita income0.003***− 0.001− 0.000− 0.0000.001
Livestock producer− 0.0290.0070.0030.000− 0.011
Owns dwelling0.100*− 0.025− 0.010− 0.0010.036
Chronically sick HH head− 0.186**0.0500.017− 0.000− 0.067
Chronically sick spouse− 0.176*0.0480.016− 0.000− 0.063
Chronically HH member− 0.0690.0180.0070.000− 0.025
Indebted− 0.0250.0060.0020.000− 0.009
Unemployed HH head− 0.398***0.1160.029− 0.005− 0.140
Unemployed spouse− 0.222**0.0610.019− 0.001− 0.079
Unemployed HH member− 0.229***0.0620.021− 0.000− 0.082
Techiman0.013− 0.003− 0.001− 0.0000.005
μ (1)− 0.602***    
μ (2)0.078    
μ (3)0.405*    
Observations2004    
Log–likelihood value− 2370    
Pseudo R20.097    
  1. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1