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Table 2 Duration of cowpea processing steps in artisanal “atta” production

From: Economic potentials of artisanal food processing microenterprises in West Africa: case of “atta” production in Cotonou (Benin)

Steps Equipment or tools used Time required (in minutes) for 1 kg of cowpeas
Sorting cowpeas Sieve, plate/bowl/plastic or aluminum tray 10–20
Crushing cowpeas Mortar, mechanical mill or grinding wheel 5–30
Soaking crushed cowpeas Plastic or aluminum bowl 5–10
Skinning Plastic or aluminum bowl 10–15
Washing of cotyledons Plastic or aluminum bowl 5
Soaking cotyledons Plastic or aluminum bowl 20–30
Draining Plastic or aluminum colander, basket 5–10
Seasoning   5
Milling Mechanical mill 5–10
Mixing Plastic or aluminum bowl, spatula 30–60
Frying Spoon, skimmer, aluminum pan, coal or fagot stoves or litter, gas stoves 10–15
Draining Aluminum strainer, aluminum basket, bowl, or plate 10
All processing steps   100–200
  1. Source: Survey results, September to December 2017