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Table 2 Endogenous switching for FSF adoption and milk production

From: Does it pay to switch from free grazing to stall feeding? Impact of stall feeding practice on household welfare in Tigrai Ethiopia

Variables (FSF = 1) (FSF = 0) (FSF = 1/0)
Milk yield Milk yield Selection
Province5 (South East) − 0.463 (0.309) − 0.770*** (0.182) 0.948** (0.370)
Province 3 (Central) − 0.748*** (0.270) − 0.826*** (0.275) 1.564*** (0.396)
Province 2 (Eastern) − 0.683*** (0.222) − 0.887*** (0.187) 0.760** (0.353)
Province 4 (North west) − 0.396 (0.257) − 0.685*** (0.143) 0.458* (0.252)
Total cows (count) 0.0316 (0.0618) − 0.0367 (0.0268) − 0.0534 (0.0690)
Hired labor (yes = 1) 0.138 (0.140) − 0.240*** (0.0902) 0.0499 (0.178)
Grazing area to household ratio (ha/hh) 48.27** (24.02) 13.99 (13.73) − 35.00 (49.72)
Total animal feed value(ETB) − 9.02e-06 (1.01e-05) 1.06e-05 (8.00e-06) 3.43e-05*** (1.15e-05)
Forage expense (ETB) − 0.0657 (0.159) − 0.00264 (0.114) 0.357* (0.183)
Feed supplementary cost (ETB) 0.000250 (0.000154) − 0.000161*** (5.25e-05) − 1.00e-05 (0.000153)
Veterinary expense (ETB) − 0.00144 (0.00148) 0.000406 (0.000263) − 0.000599 (0.000755)
Location (highland = 1) 0.241 (0.237) 0.155 (0.206) − 0.754* (0.448)
Improved cow (yes = 1) 0.471* (0.278) − 0.381 (0.271) 1.556*** (0.383)
Access to pond (yes = 1) − 0.140 (0.200) − 0.387* (0.233) − 0.449 (0.767)
Access to animal shed (yes = 1) 0.520** (0.209) − 0.161 (0.141) 0.336 (0.334)
Access to fodder shed (yes = 1) − 0.534*** (0.161) − 0.605** (0.255) 1.732** (0.699)
Household head age (year) 0.000937 (0.00523) 0.00166 (0.00289) − 0.00430 (0.00578)
Animal shock exposure (yes = 1) − 0.122 (0.177) 0.189 (0.116) 0.473** (0.188)
Family labor (h) 0.00203 (0.00123) 0.00107* (0.000550) 0.000891 (0.00105)
Information access (yes = 1)    0.381** (0.186)
Village exposure to SF(years)    0.144** (0.0705)
Constant 2.081*** (0.381) 1.863*** (0.182) − 1.638*** (0.464)
lns1, lns2 − 0.271(0.132)** − 0.556 (0.164)***  
ρ12 − 0.363 (0.266) 0.166 (0.354)  
LR test of indep. eqns (PV   0.2058  
Observations 364 364 364
  1. P values are for slopes: ***P < 0.01, **P < 0.05, and *P < 0.10 = significant at 1%, 5%, and 10% probability level, respectively