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Table 6 Endogenous switching for FSF adoption and animal sale market participation

From: Does it pay to switch from free grazing to stall feeding? Impact of stall feeding practice on household welfare in Tigrai Ethiopia

Variables (FSF = 1) (FSF = 0) (FSF = 1/0)
participation Participation Selection
Distance to market (walking minutes) 0.000197 (0.00180) 0.00262* (0.00137) − 0.000370 (0.00126)
Distance to nearest road (walking minutes) 0.00186 (0.00260) 0.000615 (0.00193) − 0.00338* (0.00187)
Population density (ratio) − 0.000125 (0.000117) − 0.000142* (8.17e-05) 0.000109 (8.21e-05)
Household head age (year) 0.00356 (0.00587) 0.00432 (0.00543) − 0.00853 (0.00523)
Household head sex (male = 1) − 0.281 (0.239) 0.0124 (0.204) 0.563*** (0.174)
Family size (number) 0.00752 (0.0386) 0.0950*** (0.0340) 0.00707 (0.0283)
Household head education (literate = 1) 0.111 (0.172) − 0.0786 (0.153) − 0.0407 (0.137)
Total oxen number − 0.0289 (0.0540) − 0.118** (0.0572) 0.0218 (0.0440)
Total cow number 0.130* (0.0718) 0.0595 (0.0547) − 0.00641 (0.0458)
Farm size (ha) 0.101 (0.114) − 0.0839 (0.0965) 0.0646 (0.0629)
Breed cow possession (yes = 1) − 1.028*** (0.326) 0.0187 (0.868) 1.849*** (0.334)
Information access (TV, radio, and mobile = 1) − 0.166 (0.190) − 0.196 (0.216) 0.423*** (0.164)
Mean milk price (ETB) − 0.000983 (0.00306) − 0.000483 (0.00210) − 0.000862 (0.00280)
Social network (got assistance = 1) − 1.48e-06 (1.71e-05) − 1.34e-05 (1.72e-05) 1.38e-05 (1.63e-05)
Access to formal credit (yes = 1) − 0.0837 (0.192) 0.0857 (0.168) 0.0689 (0.144)
Province 1 (Southern) 1.106** (0.439) 0.439 (0.362) − 1.383*** (0.300)
Province 2 (Eastern) − 0.127 (0.268) − 0.0886 (0.288) − 0.459* (0.279)
Province 3 (Central) − 0.146 (0.267) − 0.150 (0.463) 0.510* (0.265)
Province 4 (North west) 0.502* (0.277) 0.189 (0.275) − 0.580*** (0.221)
Location of household (highland = 1) 0.601* (0.339) 0.613** (0.310) − 0.585** (0.296)
Animal shock experience (yes = 1) − 0.527*** (0.197) − 0.120 (0.211) 0.435*** (0.159)
Distance to free grazing land (walking minute)    0.00515*** (0.00152)
Exposure of SF (years)    0.214*** (0.0504)
Constant 0.698 (0.467) − 0.899* (0.503) − 1.356*** (0.506)
rho1, rho0 − 14.19 (1.550)*** − 0.625 (0.519)  
LR test of indep. eqns (PV   0.0005  
Observations 518 518 518
  1. P values are for slopes: ***P < 0.01, **P < 0.05, and *P < 0.10 = significant at 1%, 5%, and 10% probability level, respectively