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Table 4 Model estimation: beta coefficients and odds ratio for voluntary label disclosure

From: Label information and consumer behaviour: evidence on drinking milk sector

  (Model 4) (Model 5) (Model 6)
Variables Local origin Cattle feed Environmental sustainability
β Odds ratio β Odds ratio β Odds ratio
Loyalty 1.15*** [0.25] 3.15*** [0.78] − 0.11 [0.25] 1.12 [0.27] − 0.34 [0.21] 0.71 [0.15]
Proximity to the store − 0.83 [0.23] 0.92 [0.21] 0.15 [0.24] 1.16 [0.27] 0.44** [0.22] 1.56** [0.35]
Price − 0.19 [0.23] 0.82 [0.19] − 0.27 [0.23] 0.76 [0.18] 0.08 [0.21] 1.08 [0.23]
Cattle welfare 0.35 [0.24] 1.42 [0.34] 1.40*** [0.29] 4.06*** [1.20] 2.08*** [0.31] 7.98*** [2.44]
Packaging 1.05*** [0.30] 2.86*** [0.86] 0.71** [0.28] 2.04** [0.57] 0.42 [0.26] 1.52 [0.39]
Food safety 0.24 [0.31] 1.27 [0.39] 0.37 [0.38] 1.44 [0.54] − 0.01 [0.40] 0.99 [0.39]
Freshness 0.67 [0.48] 1.95 [0.93] 0.49 [0.37] 1,63 [0.59] − 0.27 [0.42] 0.76 [0.32]
Taste − 0.41 [0.45] 0.66 [0.30] 0.04 [0.33] 1,04 [0.35] 0.61* [0.36] 1.84* [0.66]
Habits—purchase of milk 0.06 [0.24] 1.06 [0.26] − 0.23 [0.23] 0.79 [0.18] 0.21 [0.24] 1.24 [0.30]
Habits—purchase of dairy products − 0.40* [0.21] 0.67* [0.14] − 0.09 [0.23] 1.10 [0.25] − 0.08 [0.22] 0.92 [0.20]
Responsible of food expenses 0.37 [0.30] 1.44 [0.43] 0.13 [0.29] 1,14 [0.34] 0.08 [0.28] 1.08 [0.30]
Food-related disease − 0.88*** [0.28] 0.42*** [0.12] 0.43 [0.28] 1.54 [0.42] 0.60* [0.32] 1.82* [0.59]
Children − 0.11 [0.35] 0.89 [0.31] − 0.25 [0.30] 0,78 [0.23] − 0.09 [0.27] 0.92 [0.24]
Farm ownership 0.50 [0.49] 1.64 [0.80] − 0.07 [0.47] 0,93 [0.44] − 0.99* [0.51] 0.37* [0.19]
Organic concern 0.96*** [0.23] 2.60*** [0.61] 1.10*** [0.26] 3.00*** [0.77] 1.05*** [0.24] 2.86*** [0.68]
SOC—woman 0.34 [0.24] 1.40 [0.34] 0.08 [0.22] 1.09 [0.24] − 0.30 [0.21] 0.74 [0.16]
SOC—age: 31–45 0.28 [0.29] 1.32 [0.39] 0.84*** [0.29] 2.31*** [0.66] 0.16 [0.30] 1.17 [0.35]
SOC—age: > 46 1.26*** [0.35] 3.51*** [1.23] 1.75*** [0.35] 5.74*** [2.00] 0.83** [0.34] 2.30** [0.79]
SOC—household size: 2 members − 0.72** [0.37] 0.48** [0.18] 0.12 [0.39] 1.13 [0.45] − 0.56 [0.39] 0.57 [0.22]
SOC—household size: 3 members − 0.29 [0.44] 0.75 [0.33] − 0.10 [0.50] 0.91 [0.45] − 0.52 [0.52] 0.60 [0.31]
SOC—household size: 4 members − 0.34 [0.43] 0.71 [0.31] 0.42 [0.48] 1.52 [0.72] − 0.83* [0.49] 0.44* [0.22]
SOC—household size: > 4 members − 0.75 [0.51] 0.47 [0.24] − 0.15 [0.54] 0.86 [0.46] − 0.84 [0.54] 0.43 [0.23]
SOC—education: high school 2.19*** [0.56] 8.96*** [5.04] 0.94 [1.43] 2.55 [3.64] 0.19 [0.49] 1.21 [0.59]
SOC—education: degree 2.24*** [0.56] 9.41*** [5.25] 0.66 [1.44] 1.94 [2.79] 0.02 [0.49] 1.02 [0.50]
SOC—household income: from 36,151.98 to 70,000.00€ 0.50** [0.23] 1.64** [0.38] − 0.58** [0.25] 0.56** [0.14] − 0.05 [0.23] 0.96 [0.22]
SOC—household income: from 70,000.00 to 100,000.00€ 0.52 [0.35] 1.68 [0.59] − 0.59* [0.32] 0.55* [0.18] − 0.06 [0.36] 0.94 [0.34]
Cut 1 1.23 [0.86] 0.21 [1.59] − 2.16 [0.87]
Cut 2 1.65 [0.85] 1.05 [1.59] − 1.09 [0.84]
Cut 3 2.47 [0.85] 2.07 [1.59] − 0.02 [0.81]
Cut 4 3.26 [0.84] 2.90 [1.60] 0.81 [0.81]
Cut 5 4.30 [0.85] 4.03 [1.59] 1.84 [0.81]
Cut 6 5.75 [0.85] 5.37 [1.59] 3.52 [0.82]
Obs 426 426 426
Pseudo R2 0.1366 0.1427 0.1400
  1. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.10. There are robust standard errors in brackets