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Table 2 Description of the data envelopment analysis’ input variables and variables of the t-test; average values (av) and standard deviation (st.dev)

From: Technical efficiency and productivity of farms: a periurban case study analysis

Variables Unit Description Total sample av (st.dev) Total sample max–min Livestock farms av (st.dev) Crop farms av (st.dev)
Output
 Revenues €’000 Total revenues of the farm, including revenues from the sale of the product, the revenues from multifunctional agriculture, CAP payment. 519.33 (603.33) 2977.97–77.00 731.96 (825.95) 357.72 (278.49)
Input
 Land ha Usable agricultural area 78 (76) 404–5 90 (91) 70 (62)
 EXPE €’000 Variable costs of the farm: purchase of seeds, seedlings, fertilizers, plant protection products, veterinary expenses (materials + work performance), fodder, feed, irrigating water, electricity, fuels (methane, LPG, other), insurances, accounting technical consultancy, banking services, membership fees for trade associations, rental of machinery, means of transport and other goods, agricultural work performed by third parties, charges for the management of the farm, fuels 187.76 (356.39) 2059.71–13.07 346.50 (540.77) 108.65 (77.61)
 Work €’000 Cost for familiar and non-familiar manpower 121.738 (966.3) 535.50–28.80 137.62 (83.44) 109.67 (105.63)
Discriminatory analysis  
 VALT % Percentage of total revenues from SFSCs: direct on-farm sale, food processing and sale, sale in farmers markets, groceries, schools’ canteens, solidarity purchasing groups. 14.16 (19.09) 98.56–0.00 14.18 (22.74) 14.16 (16.29)
 VCONV % Percentage of total revenues from CFNs 64.5 (27.6) 94.77–0.00 72.12 (22.30) 58.14 (25.21)
 MULT % Percentage of total revenues from multifunctional agriculture: didactic farms, agritourism, sub-contractor, on-farm processing 29.50 (32.94) 98.56–0.00 8.58 (22.10) 20.47 (28.23)
 AGE % Percentage of employers younger than 40 years old 25.34 (20.52) 60.68–0.00 32.61 (20.82) 19.82 (18.86)
 EDUC % Percentage of employers with high school or university diploma 73.63 (27.27) 100.00–0.00 71.03 (23.29) 76.61 (30.27)