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Table 1 List and definition of variables

From: Effects of climate adaptation on technical efficiency of maize production in Northern Ghana

Variable Definition/measurement
Output The total kilograms of maize grains obtained by a farmer
Farm size The total acres of land cultivated by a farmer
Hired labor The total of people hired during the production season on maize farm
Family labor The number of family members who assisted for any activity on the farm.
Seed The total kilogram of seed sown on farm.
Chemical The total liter of herbicides plus pesticides.
Fertilizer The total kilogram of organic and inorganic fertilizer used by a farmer.
Adaptation The number of the fourteen climate adaptation strategies adopted by a farmer. Expectedly, climate adaptation should improve crop production.
Planting date Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Early maturing variety Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Drought-resistant variety Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Crop rotation Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Land rotation Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Mixed farming Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Intercropping Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Refilling Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
CA Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
ISFM Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Mulching Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Row planting Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
IPM Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Contour farming Dummy: 1 if a farmer adopted the climate adaptation strategy and 0 if not.
Age The total number of years of a farmer from birth to the time of interview. Age is expected to be positively related to inefficiency since younger farmers should be able through their energy produce maize more efficient.
Education The total number of years of formal education by a farmer. Expectedly, higher education should improve efficiency through better understanding of production information.
Home-farm The distance between the home of the farmer and the farm in kilometers. Farmers with short distance to farm are expected to be more efficient since they do not walk longer distance to their farms.
Extension Dummy: 1 if a farmer had access to extension service during the cropping season and 0 if not. Extension service improves efficiency through the provision and training on production technologies.
Farmer group Dummy: 1 if a farmer belonged to a farmer group and 0 if not. Group membership is a source of social asset to rural farmers; hence, membership is expected to improve efficiency.
Credit access Dummy: 1 if a farmer had accessed credit during the cropping season and 0 if not. Access to credit is expected to enhance the use of production inputs, hence, improve efficiency.