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Table 1 Interests in land in Ghana

From: Farmer-herder conflicts, tenure insecurity and farmer’s investment decisions in Agogo, Ghana

Interest/right Duration Primary custodian Reason Coverage/range
Allodial Infinite Chief, tendanaa, clan, family Fiduciary/custodian role All customary lands within geographical boundaries of chieftaincy, earth priest/tendanaa, family or clan institution
Sub-allodial title Infinite Sub-chief, clan, family Subordinate Fiduciary/custodian role All subdivided land within territorial jurisdiction of sub-chief
Customary freehold Infinite Usufructs/ indigenes Membership of community through lineage All lands allocated, occupied and actively cultivated by usufructs
Common-law freehold Infinite Any individual or group with whom a freehold purchase agreement was reached before promulgation of the fourth (1992) republican constitution of Ghana (families, individuals, corporate organisations) Assignee Territorial boundaries of purchased land
Leasehold Maximum 99 years (renewable) Any individual or group with whom a lease agreement was reached (families, individuals, corporate organisations) Lessee Territorial boundaries of leased land
Customary cash/share tenancy Renewable seasonally/yearly/after payment of agreed fee/share of farm produce to land owner Any individual or group with whom a rental agreement was reached (families, individuals) Tenant Territorial boundaries of leased lands
Customary license May be infinite, time bound or renewable in consonance with provisions of the license agreement Any individual or group with whom a license agreement was reached (families, individuals) Licensee Specific use rights with varied territorial access.
  1. Source: Authors’ Illustration based on Ollennu (1962), Bentsi-Enchill (1964), Asante (1965), Constitution of the Republic Of Ghana (1992), Woodman (1996), da Rocha and Lodoh (1999)