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Table 3 The link between consumption of food group and household MPA

From: Food consumption patterns, nutrient adequacy, and the food systems in Nigeria

  Country Rural Urban
Cereals 0.060 0.082** −0.035
(0.036) (0.033) (0.125)
White roots and tubers 0.057*** 0.062*** 0.039
(0.010) (0.011) (0.025)
Vegetables 0.076*** 0.054 0.128***
(0.025) (0.030) (0.045)
Fruits 0.044*** 0.036*** 0.060***
(0.007) (0.009) (0.010)
Meat 0.045*** 0.044*** 0.040***
(0.008) (0.009) (0.014)
Eggs 0.010 0.020 0.004
(0.009) (0.011) (0.012)
Fish and other seafood 0.032*** 0.028** 0.049***
(0.009) (0.011) (0.015)
Legumes, nuts, seeds 0.110*** 0.101*** 0.145***
(0.013) (0.014) (0.029)
Milk and milk products 0.027*** 0.026** 0.024
(0.008) (0.011) (0.014)
Oils and fats 0.083*** 0.076*** 0.089
(0.021) (0.024) (0.053)
Sweets 0.017** 0.017 0.020
(0.008) (0.011) (0.014)
Spices, condiments, and beverages 0.005 0.018 −0.052
(0.029) (0.032) (0.046)
Mobile phone (1/0) −0.009 −0.014 −0.011
(0.009) (0.009) (0.017)
Electricity (1/0) −0.030*** −0.026** −0.029
(0.009) (0.011) (0.017)
Improved sources of water (1/0) 0.007 0.000 0.009
(0.008) (0.009) (0.014)
Improved sanitation, community (%) −0.034 −0.022 0.022
(0.018) (0.017) (0.033)
Health center/hospital in community (1/0) 0.012 0.016 0.012
(0.008) (0.011) (0.010)
Irrigation (1/0) 0.014 −0.014 0.099
(0.028) (0.026) (0.063)
Distance to nearest market (KMs) −0.000 −0.000** 0.000
(0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Distance in to Nearest Population Center with +20,000 (KMs) 0.000 0.000 0.000
(0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Fraction of agriculture in 1km buffer 0.000** 0.001** 0.000
(0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Household expenditure quintile    
 _2 (1/0) 0.028** 0.031*** 0.027
(0.011) (0.012) (0.028)
 _3 (1/0) 0.071*** 0.073*** 0.085***
(0.012) (0.014) (0.030)
 _4 (1/0) 0.122*** 0.127*** 0.135***
(0.014) (0.017) (0.030)
Household expenditure quintile_5 (1/0) 0.215*** 0.210*** 0.242***
(0.016) (0.022) (0.031)
Expenditure on MAH over food at home −0.005 −0.010** −0.002
(0.005) (0.004) (0.005)
Household size in adult female equivalent −0.024*** −0.023*** −0.026***
(0.002) (0.002) (0.004)
Dependency ratio 0.036*** 0.030 0.046**
(0.012) (0.018) (0.022)
Male household head (1/0) −0.015 −0.009 −0.023
(0.008) (0.011) (0.013)
Age of household head in years 0.001*** 0.001*** 0.002***
(0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Post-primary education of household head (1/0) −0.010 −0.007 −0.003
(0.007) (0.009) (0.013)
Rural 0.066***   
(0.010)   
Constant −0.157** −0.069 −0.282
(0.078) (0.085) (0.173)
Observations 4023 2706 1317
r2 0.392 0.407 0.427
  1. Note: additional controls include dummies for month of interview, agroecological zone, and state of residence. Standard errors (in parentheses) clustered at level of enumeration area
  2. *p<0.10, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01