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Table 4 Gross margin component (Gh₵) across agro-ecologies

From: Economic benefits of livestock management in Ghana

  Agro-ecological zones
Components GS (n=120) Sudan savannah (n=129)
Average flock size 19.74a 16.17b
Physical products   
 Non-marketed products   
  Meat consumed at home 147.85a 146.80a
  Manure 0.31a 0.021a
  Hide 9.36a 6.89a
  In-kind 42.52a 67.23a
  Sub-totals (A) 198.13a 221.13a
 Marketed products   
  Meat 544.52a 438.86b
  Less hidden cost (death/losses) 254.38a 309.02a
  Less external inputs 55.80a 53.56a
  Sub-totals (B) 234.34a 129.84b
Gross margin (A+B) 432.46a 350.98b
Gross margin per animal (GM/flock size) 21.91a 21.71b
  1. Note: Within rows, means (least square mean values) of components with different superscripts are significantly different at P < 0.05 on a t-test of means. Exchange rate: US$1 was equivalent to Gh₵1.9 at the time of the study