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Table 3 A summary of the estimated effects

From: Russian meat price transmission and policy interventions in 2014

Product Import, USD Producer, RUB Consumer, RUB
Competition with domestic producers Market protection (Pork ban/ Embargo) Currency liberalisation Import effect (RUB) Export incentives Market protection (Pork ban/ Embargo) Currency liberalisation Producer Import Substitution effect
Beef  +  Not sign./ Not sign Not sign Not sign Not sign Not sign./ −  Not sign  +   +  Poultry: ‘ + ’; Pork: ‘ + ’
Poultry  +  Not sign./ Not sign Not sign Not sign Not sign  + / −  Not sign Not sign Not sign Beef: ‘0’; Pork: ‘ + ’
Pork  +  Not sign./ Not sign Not sign Not sign Not sign  + / −  Not sign  +   +  Beef: ‘ − ’; Poultry: ‘0’
  1. If the models on different frequency (weekly or monthly data series) delivered different results, we considered weakly significant (0.05 < p < 0.1) or insignificant results as insignificant and significant (p ≤ 0.05) results as significant