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Table 4 Summary statistics of explanatory variables*.

From: Structural change in the dairy sector: exit from farming and farm type change

Variable Mean Standard deviation
Number of workers (family): 0 0.001 0.024
 1 0.084 0.278
 2 0.362 0.481
 3 0.297 0.457
 4 0.177 0.382
 5 0.045 0.206
 > 5 0.035 0.183
Apprentices (binary) 0.029 0.168
Employees (binary) 0.126 0.332
Age of the farmer (years) 45.033 13.521
Number of dairy cows 16.338 12.206
Stocking rate (LU/UAA) 1.414 0.935
Organic farm (binary) 0.122 0.328
Animal welfare housing system (BTS, binary) 0.354 0.478
Regularly keeping animals outdoors (RAUS, binary) 0.755 0.430
Herfindahl–Hirschman index (0: diversified, 1: specialised) 0.412 0.115
Direct payments in 1000 CHF 47.783 27.786
Ratio of direct payments/SO 0.422 0.226
Milk price index (2015: 100) 115.881 10.172
Gruyère (PDO region) 0.155 0.362
Raclette du Valais (PDO region) 0.042 0.200
Rest of CH 0.803 0.398
Comparison salary in 2nd and 3rd sector in 1000 CHF 63.761 5.553
Unemployment rate (Canton level) 0.024 0.009
Valley region 0.217 0.412
Hill region 0.353 0.478
Mountain region 0.430 0.495
Farm type (groups)
 Specialised dairy farms 0.666 0.472
 Specialised cattle farms 0.169 0.374
 Suckler cow farms and combined cattle farms (group) 0.077 0.267
 Horse/sheep/goat farms 0.012 0.108
 Arable crops, special crops, granivore farms (group) 0.076 0.265
Number of observations 441,281  
  1. *Not displayed are the 26 Cantons (regional administrative units) and the five policy periods