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Table 5 Summary statistics of staying and leaving farms.

From: Structural change in the dairy sector: exit from farming and farm type change

Variable Farm exit = 0 Farm exit = 1 Mean difference
Mean Std. dev. Mean Std. dev. (mean 1 − mean 0)
Number of workers (family): 0 0.001 0.024 0.001 0.025 0.000
 1 0.082 0.275 0.198 0.399 0.116***
 2 0.360 0.480 0.459 0.498 0.099***
 3 0.298 0.457 0.208 0.406 − 0.091***
 4 0.179 0.383 0.097 0.296 − 0.081***
 5 0.045 0.207 0.019 0.136 − 0.026***
 > 5 0.035 0.184 0.018 0.134 − 0.017***
Apprentices (binary) 0.029 0.169 0.012 0.111 − 0.017***
Employees (binary) 0.126 0.332 0.105 0.306 − 0.022***
Age of the farmer (years) 44.903 13.429 52.076 16.319 7.173***
Number of dairy cows 16.420 12.191 11.892 12.202 − 4.528***
Stocking rate (LU/UAA) 1.414 0.934 1.387 0.983 − 0.027**
Organic farm (binary) 0.123 0.329 0.070 0.255 − 0.053***
Animal welfare housing system (BTS, binary) 0.357 0.479 0.184 0.388 − 0.173***
Regularly keeping animals outdoors (RAUS, binary) 0.759 0.428 0.571 0.495 − 0.188***
Herfindahl–Hirschman index 0.411 0.115 0.443 0.133 0.032***
Direct payments in 1000 CHF 48.052 27.727 33.183 27.048 − 14.869***
Ratio of direct payments/SO 0.422 0.226 0.422 0.230 0.001
Milk price index (2015 = 100) 115.909 10.170 114.395 10.165 − 1.513***
Gruyère (PDO region) 0.154 0.361 0.207 0.405 0.053***
Raclette du Valais (PDO rgn.) 0.041 0.198 0.069 0.253 0.028***
Rest of CH 0.805 0.397 0.724 0.447 − 0.080***
Comparison salary in 2nd and 3rd sector in 1000 CHF 63.749 5.551 64.394 5.587 0.645***
Unemployment rate 0.024 0.009 0.024 0.009 0.001***
Valley region 0.217 0.412 0.227 0.419 0.011**
Hill region 0.353 0.478 0.350 0.477 − 0.003
Mountain region 0.431 0.495 0.423 0.494 − 0.007
Agricultural policy periods
 2000–2001 0.123 0.328 0.117 0.321 − 0.006*
 2002–2006 0.299 0.458 0.225 0.418 − 0.074***
 2007–2008 0.114 0.318 0.115 0.318 0.000
 2009–2013 0.267 0.443 0.324 0.468 0.057***
 2014–2018 0.196 0.397 0.220 0.414 0.023***
Farm type (groups)
 Specialised dairy farms 0.665 0.472 0.723 0.448 0.058***
 Specialised cattle farms 0.169 0.375 0.144 0.351 − 0.025***
 Suckler cow farms and comb. cattle farms (group) 0.078 0.267 0.073 0.260 − 0.004
 Horse/sheep/goat farms 0.012 0.107 0.018 0.131 0.006***
 Arable crop, granivore farms (group) 0.076 0.266 0.043 0.202 − 0.034***
Number of observations 433,301   7980   
  1. t-statistic of mean difference calculated as \(({\mathrm{Mean}}_{1}-{\mathrm{Mean}}_{0})/\sqrt{\frac{({\mathrm{Std}.\mathrm{ dev}.}_{1}^{2})}{{N}_{1}}+\frac{({\mathrm{Std}.\mathrm{ dev}.}_{0}^{2})}{{N}_{0}}}\)
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1