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Box 1 Case A

From: Alignment between vertical and horizontal coordination for food quality and safety in Indonesian vegetable chains

Vertical coordination
Farmers sell vegetables to rural collectors based near their homes and fields. There are no quality specification agreements. The farmers sell unsorted vegetables of heterogenous quality to the rural collectors. The rural collectors do not monitor quality or sort vegetables based on a specific quality standard. Rural collectors accept vegetables of any quality and then sell them to traditional (wet) markets. In addition, rural collectors do not allocate resources, such as farming inputs or technical assistance, that could help farmers address quality concerns.
Horizontal coordination
No PO is involved in this chain.
Quality performance
The vegetables produced are heterogenous and do not meet any specific quality requirements, either intrinsic or extrinsic (organic).